Creating the perfect environment for healthy soybean crops is no easy task. It requires a firm understanding of all the aspects that go into cultivating these plants, from weather conditions to soil quality.
However, it’s not impossible. Soybean is less challenging to grow than other plants, such as artichokes and eggplants.
Below, we take a closer look at the factors contributing to successful soybean planting. We explore the soil requirements that ensure your crops thrive, along with the best planting and harvesting methods to maximize yield.
By following our guidelines and embracing sustainable land use practices, you can achieve exceptional results in soybean cultivation.
Let’s dive right in.
When to Plant
The optimal planting date for soybeans depends on various factors, such as geographic location, climate conditions, and soil characteristics.
Generally, soybeans are planted when the soil temperature reaches around 60°F (15°C) at a depth of 1-1.5 inches (2-4 cm). This way, the seeds have enough warmth to germinate and establish strong roots.
Early planting can be advantageous, as it allows the crops to take advantage of the entire growing season. On the other hand, planting too early in cold or wet conditions can result in poor emergence and yield losses due to chilling injury.
Soybeans thrive in well-drained soils with a pH level between 6.0 and 7.0.
Because of that, conducting a soil test before planting is crucial. If the pH level is too low or high, it can affect nutrient availability and ultimately hinder soybean growth.
In addition to pH levels, soybeans require adequate fertility for healthy growth. They have high nitrogen demands, especially during their vegetative stage.
Incorporating organic matter into the soil helps improve its fertility by increasing nutrient availability and water-holding capacity. You can achieve this by practicing cover cropping or applying compost or manure before planting.
Soybeans also have shallow root systems that are sensitive to both drought stress and excessive moisture. Therefore, maintaining consistent soil moisture levels is crucial throughout their growth stages.
Adequate drainage should be ensured in poorly drained soils to prevent waterlogging, while irrigation may be necessary during dry spells.
Lastly, it’s important to consider your field’s history when selecting a site for soybean cultivation. Avoid areas with a history of diseases that commonly affect soybeans, such as damping-off or root rot caused by certain pathogens in the soil.
When it comes to planting soybeans, there are a few methods you can choose from.
In the past, commercial farmers often used a method known as broadcast seeding. This technique involved scattering seeds across the farming land. However, technological advancements led to the emergence of more efficient methods.
New, modern techniques like planters and drills started to take over since they offered greater capacity. As a result, they have largely replaced traditional broadcast seeding in many areas of commercial farming.
Today, direct seeding into the soil is the method of choice for many farmers. It’s viewed as the most effective way to plant crops.
No-till planting, in particular, has gained popularity, as it helps retain moisture and organic matter in the soil while reducing erosion. It involves minimal soil disturbance by directly sowing seeds into untilled residue from previous crops.
By adopting a no-till approach, farmers can effortlessly establish a thriving soybean crop while preserving the integrity of their fields.
Here are three reasons why the no-till planting method is considered the best way to plant soybeans.
No-till planting helps conserve soil by minimizing erosion and preserving its structure.
When soil is tilled, it becomes more susceptible to erosion caused by wind and water runoff. This situation can lead to the loss of topsoil, which is rich in nutrients necessary for plant growth.
By avoiding tillage, farmers can maintain healthy soil structure and reduce erosion risks, ensuring long-term productivity.
Improved Moisture Retention
Soybeans require adequate moisture for optimal growth and development. No-till planting helps retain moisture in the soil by preventing evaporation from exposure to sun and wind.
When farmers avoid disturbing the soil through tilling, they create a protective layer of crop residues on the surface that acts as a natural mulch, reducing water loss through evaporation and enhancing water infiltration into the soil.
Enhanced Weed Control
Weeds compete with soybeans for resources such as sunlight, nutrients, and water.
Conventional tillage methods can disturb weed seeds buried deep in the soil, leading to increased weed pressure during crop establishment.
No-till planting suppresses weeds by leaving residue on the surface that acts as a physical barrier against weed emergence. Additionally, this method allows farmers to use herbicides more effectively since there is less disturbance of the soil where weeds would typically emerge.
Maintenance and Care
Regular monitoring is essential during the early phases of growth and development because it allows farmers to identify potential issues as soon as they appear. It includes keeping an eye out for signs of diseases or pests that may affect soybean production.
Here’s a table of common diseases that affect soybeans.
|Downy mildew (Peronospora manshurica)
|– blotches ranging in color from light green to yellow on the top of the leaf- undersized seeds- mold and fungus spores on the undersides of the leaves and seeds
|Seed treatment, crop rotation, and growing resistant varieties.
|Bacterial blight (Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea)
|– small, jagged, water-soaked marks on the leaves changing from yellow to brown, often encircled by halos of yellow-green- leaf drop if spots grow and join together to form massive dead areas
|Growing resistant cultivars, non-host crop rotation, pathogen-free seed, and deep tillage.
|White mold (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum)
|– pale brown, watery sores- white cottony growth- little black particles on/in stems
|Growing resistant cultivars, reduced tillage, planting in wider rows, non-host crop rotation, and fungicides.
|Stem canker (Diaporthe phaseolorum var. caulivora)
|– longitudinally growing, reddish-brown sores on the stem near a node
|Growing resistant cultivars, crop rotation, residue incorporation, fungicides.
|Charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina)
|– brown spots on growing seedlings– undersized, chlorotic, brown leaves– light gray streaks on the taproot and bottom stem– grayish discoloration on the bottom stem
|Growing resistant cultivars, reduced tillage, non-host crop rotation, decreased planting densities.
Adhering to recommended guidelines for planting, maintenance, and harvesting is another key aspect of successful soybean cultivation. Farmers should pay attention to factors like the correct timing of operations, including planting at the right time and ensuring adequate spacing between plants.
Proper weed control is also essential for maximizing yield potential and minimizing competition with the soybean crop.
Here are some tips you should implement to harvest soybeans successfully.
Timing Is Crucial
The ideal time for harvest is when the beans have reached full maturity but before they start to shatter or drop from the plants. This period typically occurs when 95% of the pods have turned brown or yellow, and the moisture content of the beans is around 13-15%.
Harvesting too early can result in lower yields while delaying harvest can lead to yield loss due to shattering.
Use Proper Harvesting Equipment
Invest in high-quality harvesting equipment explicitly designed for soybeans. A combine harvester equipped with a flexible cutting header and a reel will help minimize losses during harvest.
Remember to change your equipment settings according to crop conditions, such as adjusting reel speed and height based on plant height and density.
Pay Attention to Field Conditions
Before starting the harvest, assess field conditions to minimize soil compaction and damage to plants. Avoid harvesting when fields are excessively wet, as this can cause deep ruts and compaction that may affect future crops’ growth.
Consider using flotation tires or tracks on your machinery if working in muddy or soft soil conditions.
In conclusion, planting soybeans requires careful consideration of various factors.
Timing is crucial, as planting at the right time allows for optimal growth and yield.
On top of that, the soil should meet the necessary requirements, from proper soil composition and pH levels to nutrient content.
Proper planting methods, such as using precision equipment and spacing seeds appropriately, also contribute to successful soybean cultivation.
Finally, regular maintenance and care throughout the growing season are vital for weed control, disease prevention, and maximizing yields.
Following the practices outlined in this article can increase your chances of achieving robust and healthy soybean crops while promoting sustainable land use practices. Good luck!
Frequently Asked Questions
How can diseases affect soybean production, and what are some common diseases to watch out for?
Diseases can significantly impact soybean production. Common ones include soybean cyst nematode, sudden death syndrome, and frogeye leaf spot. These diseases can reduce yields and the quality of the crop. Regular monitoring and timely management are crucial to mitigate their effects.
Can you provide tips for preventing chilling injury in soybeans and corn?
To prevent chilling injury in soybeans and corn, ensure proper timing of planting. Remember to monitor weather conditions to avoid planting during cold periods and follow recommended guidelines for maintenance. You can also implement no-till planting techniques.
What are the benefits of no-till soybean planting?
No-till soybean planting offers several benefits. It helps to conserve soil moisture, reduce erosion, and improve soil health by preserving organic matter. Besides, it can enhance the long-term sustainability and profitability of soybean production.
How does soil degradation impact soybean crops, and what are some strategies for reversing it?
Soil degradation can negatively impact soybean crops by reducing fertility and nutrient availability. Strategies for reversing it include implementing sustainable land use practices, such as crop rotation, cover cropping, and organic matter addition to improve soil health and productivity.
Can you explain the role of soil organic carbon sequestration in modern agriculture and its benefits for soybean cultivation?
Soil organic carbon sequestration plays a crucial role in modern agriculture, benefiting soybean cultivation. It helps improve soil fertility, water retention, and nutrient availability, leading to healthier and more productive soybean crops.
How long does it take to grow soybeans?
Soybeans boast a relatively rapid growth cycle. From planting to harvest, your soybean journey might span a mere 100 to 130 days. Within this timeframe, several factors determine how long it takes for the plants to mature, including weather conditions, variety selection, soil type, and agricultural practices.
Enamored with the world of golf Jack pursued a degree in Golf Course Management at THE Ohio State University. This career path allowed him to work on some of the highest profile golf courses in the country! Due to the pandemic, Jack began Inside The Yard as a side hustle that quickly became his main hustle. Since starting the company, Jack has relocated to a homestead in Central Arkansas where he and his wife raise cattle and two little girls.