What Is Organic Gardening?

by Jack Grover
organic gardening
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In a world consumed by hustle and bustle, the gentle rustling of leaves has its own story to tell. A tale where patience begets fruits of labor right from the heart of nature. Welcome to the world of organic gardening — a realm where green thumbs and a passion for sustainability converge.

Organic gardening is not just about planting, it’s about planting with a purpose. It’s about cultivating greens without the help of synthetic pesticides or fertilizers, allowing Mother Nature to do her magic in the most unadulterated way.

But let’s explore this phenomenon a bit deeper, shall we?

Organic Gardening: An Overview

If there were a living, breathing embodiment of the phrase “back to basics,” it would undeniably be organic gardening. This nature-inspired approach is far more than just a fad or trend; it’s a commitment to healthier living and a pledge to protect our planet.

gardening preparation


In essence, organic gardening is about growing plants in sync with nature. It rejects the harsh techniques employed by industrial farms that disrupt soil and plant monocultures, instead cultivating food with an ecological mindset.

Imagine a place where compost heaps replace chemical fertilizers, and biological pest control takes precedence over harmful pesticides. This is organic gardening — where balance reigns supreme, and nature guides the way.

But organic gardening isn’t merely the absence of synthetic fertilizers or pesticides — it’s understanding the interconnectedness of everything within your garden.

Recognizing how wildlife, insects, humans, and even the water supply interact within this ecosystem helps us realize why adopting organic methods benefits not just us and our families but also the world at large.

Related: 8 Natural Pest Control Methods for Your Garden


We’ve all heard the adage, “You are what you eat.” Organic gardening takes this quite literally. Steering clear from synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, your garden yields not just healthier but also more flavorful produce.

However, the benefits of organic gardening stretch beyond just the food on our plates:

  • Environmental preservation. Organic gardens are nature’s allies, combating water pollution by reducing harmful runoff. By turning away from chemical-laden fertilizers and pesticides that can seep into our water sources, we protect our precious aquatic ecosystems.
  • Soil fertility. Remember, healthy soil equates to healthy plants, which results in a bountiful harvest. Organic gardening involves enriching the soil with compost and other natural materials that nourish it, promoting a vibrant, nutrient-dense environment where plants can thrive.
  • Biodiversity. By growing a variety of plants, your garden becomes a hotspot for different types of insects, birds, and other wildlife. This diversity not only makes your garden more resilient against pests but also contributes to preserving various species — an essential aspect of maintaining ecological balance.
  • Reduced carbon footprint. By avoiding synthetic fertilizers and pesticides that are fossil fuel-intensive to produce, we’re taking active steps to combat climate change right in our backyards.

By embracing this approach, you’re not only ensuring the healthiest possible produce for your family but also fostering a thriving ecosystem in your backyard.

But the benefits aren’t just ecological; they’re personal too. There’s something distinctly therapeutic about tending to an organic garden. Amid the whirlwind pace of modern life, your garden can serve as a tranquil sanctuary — a place where you can reconnect with nature and find peace.

In essence, choosing organic gardening is like planting seeds for a healthier world. It’s a commitment to sustainable living and a testament to how every small action can contribute to larger change.


The term “organic” carries weight — it’s regulated by USDA standards and encompasses a wide set of farming practices. These include abstaining from:

  • synthetic fertilizers,
  • pesticides, fungicides or herbicides,
  • GMOs.

As for the leading techniques, organic gardening focuses on:

  • nurturing soil biology,
  • growing diverse crops,
  • using compost or other organic matter,
  • purchasing only organic, untreated seeds,
  • planting habitats that attract pollinators.

Related: Natural Pest Control: 7 Ways to Attract Beneficial Insects to Your Garden

While official certifications may seem like they cater more to commercial farms, even individual gardeners can derive value from them. Next time you’re shopping for gardening supplies, be on the lookout for labels like Certified Organic seeds or OMRI-approved (Organic Material Review Institute) soils, fertilizers, and amendments.


As an organic gardener, your toolkit may look different from conventional gardeners’. Key tools in your arsenal should include:

  • wheelbarrow,
  • shovel,
  • rake,
  • broadfork,
  • planting knife (Hori Hori),
  • measuring tape,
  • hose or watering can.

Each tool has its own unique purpose and will prove invaluable as you embark on your organic gardening journey.

Learn More: Top 7 Garden Tools Every Gardener Should Have

How to Start Your Own Organic Garden

The journey to starting your organic garden might seem daunting at first, but remember — every great endeavor begins with small steps. From understanding your soil to selecting your seeds, each step brings you closer to your dream garden.


gardening equipments

Unleashing your green thumb on an organic garden is indeed exciting, but it’s crucial to start with a well-thought-out plan.

Growing Zone 

Your journey begins by comprehending your climate, specifically the coldest and hottest temperatures experienced in your region.

This information informs plant hardiness — the cold tolerance of a crop. Garlic, for example, survives deep freezes; broccoli handles mild frosts, while tomatoes often perish at the first hint of frost unless protected.

To determine your growing zone, refer to the USDA Hardiness Zone map — simply enter your zip code and use the colored key to identify your zone. If you’re on the borderline of a growing zone, err on the side of caution and go with the colder one.

When shopping for plants and seeds, check labels for hardiness zones.


Microclimates are localized areas with unique weather patterns differing from the surrounding climate. For instance, urban areas tend to be hotter and drier than nearby parks or yards. 

Similarly, different sections of your yard will exhibit varying levels of sunlight, soil types, temperatures, and drainage.


Choosing the right spot requires a keen understanding of your yard’s microclimates. Consider factors like:

  • sunlight exposure throughout the day,
  • shade from trees at different times or seasons,
  • water drainage patterns,
  • vegetation growth in various areas,
  • proximity to potential animal invaders from nearby forests or wild areas,
  • temperature fluctuations in specific parts of your yard,
  • closeness to a water source.

Ideally, your garden should occupy a flat area with good drainage (no pooling of rainwater), maximum sunlight (or minimal shade), easy access from your house or tool shed, and far enough from potential threats like rodents.

Garden Beds 

A bed is where you grow vegetables, herbs, or perennial plants — it’s helpful to segregate these from other parts of the yard to prevent grass encroachment and keep children and pets away from them. Here, you have some options:

  • Raised beds are often favored by urban and suburban gardeners as they’re easier to maintain and work well over existing lawns or poor soils because they’re built upwards. They can be made from untreated lumber (double-check no pressure-treated or painted materials), large logs, or even galvanized cattle troughs. The height can be adjusted to cater to elderly people or those with back pain.
  • In-ground beds resemble production farms or market gardens — best suited for larger spaces, tighter budgets, or moderately healthy soils untouched by herbicides. After marking out your beds using a tape measure, string, and stakes, consider adding a layer of compost on top of each bed to raise them above ground level.
  • Perennial landscaping beds are perfect for perennials — woody and herbaceous plants that live year after year. These are ideal for decorating the surroundings of your home.

Learn More: Making a Brick Raised Garden Bed

Breaking Ground 

Breaking ground can be accomplished in several ways:

  • The “lazy way” involves covering existing lawn or ground with tarps weighed down with rocks or sandbags for 2-3 weeks until weeds and grasses die off completely.
  • The “quick way‘” entails mowing the existing vegetation as low as possible before smothering it with cardboard (no tape), newspaper leaves, or straw, followed by a thick layer of compost or topsoil.
  • For superior soil quality, consider “lasagna style” gardening, where layers of organic matter, such as compost, aged manure, straw leaves, grass clippings, twigs, and sticks, are used to create thriving soil that decomposes over time, providing rich nutrients to the soil and plants.

One method we don’t recommend is rototilling. While it may seem convenient initially, this technique destroys soil structure leading to compaction that favors disease-causing organisms, makes root penetration difficult, disrupts vital soil biology, and exacerbates weed issues by spreading weed seeds around.


gardening planning

In the world of organic gardening, planning is key. It’s akin to laying the foundation for a building — it sets the stage for everything that follows. From understanding your soil and climate to selecting suitable plants, every decision you make should be well-informed.

Know What You Like

The first step in planning your garden is identifying what vegetables you enjoy eating! After all, the joy of savoring homegrown produce is one of the greatest motivations in gardening.

Avoid the rookie gardener’s pitfall of growing plants you aren’t fond of eating. Sure, experimentation has its place, but the satisfaction of enjoying your hard-earned harvest is unparalleled.

Homegrown veggies often pack more flavor than their supermarket counterparts. However, consider the cost-effectiveness, too. For instance, potatoes are inexpensive to buy, so growing them makes sense only if you’re keen on trying specialty varieties.

Set realistic expectations — you can start by making a list of your top ten favorite vegetables to start with.

Inspiration: Fall Vegetables: Best Picks and How to Care For Them

Planting Difficulty Levels

Not all crops are created equal — some require more care and expertise than others. Here’s a handy table to help you gauge the difficulty level of common crops:

Easy to GrowModerately DifficultMore Advanced
Sweet CornCucumbersCarrots
SpinachStrawberriesFruit Trees
RadishesEggplantVine & Bush Berries

Learn More: Unwrapping the Layers: An In-Depth Guide to Cabbage Growth Stages

Crop Planning

Just as you wouldn’t embark on a road trip without a map, don’t dive into gardening without a plan. This becomes your roadmap for the season, enabling you to maximize space and reap an abundant harvest.

Begin by categorizing your chosen vegetables into “Cool Season” or “Warm Season” crops based on their heat tolerance:

Cool Season Crops:

  • Beets
  • Broccoli
  • Carrots
  • Cabbage
  • Cauliflower
  • Collards
  • Kale
  • Lettuce
  • Leeks
  • Peas
  • Radishes
  • Turnips
  • Onions

Warm Season Crops:

Frost Dates

Understanding frost dates is crucial for timing your planting schedule right. These dates, calculated based on historical weather data, offer a reliable guide for when it’s safe to sow your seeds.

To determine these crucial dates, revisit your USDA growing zone number and use it to find the estimated first and last frost dates for your specific region.

  • The last frost date signifies the beginning of the “safe zone” for planting frost-sensitive plants in spring.
  • Conversely, the first frost date marks the anticipated commencement of the freezing period in fall or winter.

Warm-season crops should ideally be planted within this window to ensure they aren’t subjected to damaging frost.

However, there are ways to slightly extend this window. For instance, using row fabric or row covers can offer an additional layer of protection against cold while still allowing sunlight to reach your plants. This can buy your tender crops a little extra time before the frost sets in.

Plant Spacing

Plant spacing is another critical factor often overlooked by beginners. Just as people need personal space, so do plants! Crowding can lead to stress and lower yields.

Think of your garden as a grid — each plant needs adequate room to grow without encroaching on its neighbors.

vegetable spacing guide

Choosing the Seeds

seeds in hand

In the world of organic gardening, choosing between seeds and starts is a pivotal decision that largely depends on your plant choices and personal preferences.

Seeds vs. Plant Starts

Purchasing plant starts — young plants that have bypassed the germination process — can offer an instant garden effect with robust plants ready to be placed in the soil, saving you the trouble of setting up seed-starting lights or trays.

This method is particularly suitable for beginners, kids, or those in colder climates where plants benefit from a head-start indoors.

Related: Why Testing Your Seeds? A Simple Seed Germination Test

However, there are some considerations to keep in mind:

  • Plant starts tend to be costlier than seeds and offer limited varieties.
  • You might encounter root-bound or overgrown plants, especially toward the end of spring.
  • Sourcing organic plants requires careful attention as transplants from popular retailers may contain chemical treatments.

Direct Seeding vs. Transplanting

Direct seeding, as the name suggests, involves sowing seeds directly into your garden soil — a straightforward approach that eliminates the need for indoor seed starting setups.

However, this method requires consistent moisture until germination and may demand daily hand-watering or an efficient irrigation system.

Transplanting involves moving already sprouted plants from pots or trays into your garden. This approach is ideal for cold regions with short growing seasons, as it gives your garden a quick start in spring. Moreover, transplanting allows precise plant spacing, eliminating the need for thinning.

Note: Certain vegetables such as beans, beets, carrots, corn, parsnips, radishes, sugar snap peas, turnips, and cucurbits generally prefer direct seeding. They either don’t survive transplanting well or dislike root disturbance.

Seed Types

The seed universe can be somewhat perplexing; understanding the distinctions between different types of seeds is crucial.

  • Organic Seeds. Certified organic seeds comply with USDA National Organic Program regulations. These haven’t been exposed to pesticides, fungicides, herbicides, or synthetic fertilizers and are guaranteed non-GMO. Look out for the green or black USDA Certified Organic seal on seed packets.
  • Open Pollinated (OP) seeds cross-breed freely with their neighbors. They are not hybridized and are ideal for those interested in saving seeds. However, note that growing multiple OP varieties close together may result in unique offspring due to cross-pollination.
  • Heirloom seeds. Heirlooms are heritage plant varieties passed down through generations for at least 50 years. All heirlooms are open-pollinated or self-pollinated and ideal for seed savers.
  • Hybrid seeds result from crossing two different varieties of the same plant to combine desirable traits from each parent plant. Like breeding specialty dog breeds, hybrid seeds do not save true-to-type and aren’t suitable for seed-saving purposes.
  • GMO (Genetically Modified Organisms) seeds have laboratory-altered genes to produce certain traits like resistance to specific pesticides or insertion of bacterial toxins. GMO seeds are prohibited in organic production and aren’t typically a concern for gardeners.



Planting is arguably the most thrilling part of gardening (second only to harvesting), so pick a sunny day, gather your tools, and let the fun begin.

Starting Seeds Indoors

For many gardeners, the gardening season begins indoors in early spring. Starting seeds indoors gives you a head start on the planting season, ensuring robust seedlings ready to hit the soil as soon as weather permits.

Some plants that thrive when started indoors include:

  • tomatoes,
  • basil,
  • marigolds,
  • cosmos,
  • lettuce,
  • kale,
  • broccoli,
  • chard,
  • bok choy.

To perfectly time your indoor seeding, check the instructions on your seed packets. Look for phrases like “start seeds indoors four to six weeks before the last frost,” then count back on your calendar to find your ideal planting date.

A simple indoor seeding setup includes:

  • seed starting trays,
  • bottom trays (for water drainage),
  • high-quality potting mix,
  • a large south-facing window for natural light exposure,
  • supplemental lighting (like fluorescent strip grow lights) if natural light is insufficient. 

To begin seeding:

  1. Fill seed trays with potting mix — avoid compacting it too much; a gentle pat is enough.
  2. Make small indents in each tray cell — think of them as cozy nests for your seeds.
  3. Plant your seeds at a depth approximately twice their size.
  4. Cover them with a light layer of soil and keep them moist but not waterlogged.

When seedlings reach 2-5″ tall and their roots have filled out their cells, they’re ready to be transitioned outdoors — a process known as hardening off. This gradual exposure to outdoor nighttime temperatures helps prepare delicate seedlings for life in the garden.

Direct Sowing 

Certain plants prefer being sown directly into the garden bed once weather conditions are favorable.

To prepare your beds for direct sowing:

  1. Add a thin 1-2″ layer of compost or topsoil on top and rake until smooth.
  2. Use your rake’s handle to draw a shallow line in the soil.
  3. Pour your seeds into a shallow bowl or cup.
  4. Drop your seeds at recommended spacing (or slightly denser — you can thin them later).
  5. Cover with a light layer of soil and water thoroughly. Keep the soil moist but not soggy until germination.
  6. Thin to desired spacing using small scissors or needle-tip pruners once seedlings emerge.


Transplanting is an easy way to populate your garden — ideal for young gardeners or beginners. Your transplants should be healthy and green with hardened-off roots ready for outdoor conditions.

To transplant:

  1. Prepare garden beds by weeding and raking clean.
  2. Gently loosen seedlings starting from their cells by squeezing the bottoms until root balls release — be careful not to disturb roots.
  3. Use a Hori Hori knife to dig holes deep enough for each root ball.
  4. Plant most species at the same soil level they were in their cell packs — tomatoes are an exception; they can be planted deeper to encourage rooting along their stems.
  5. Use measuring tape to ensure correct spacing between plants—they may seem sparse initially but will fill in as they grow.
  6. Thoroughly water new transplants — known as “watering in” — to help them connect with their new soil.

Optional: Protect transplants with row covers anchored with bricks or landscape staples until they’re fully established.

Organic Garden Maintenance

Tending to your organic garden, it’s like a rhythmic dance — a balance of nature and nurture, requiring steady attention but rewarding with abundant yields.

Garden Maintenance

Overgrown weeds or unattended crops might seem daunting, but fear not! Gardening isn’t meant to be a chore. Instead, it’s a captivating blend of attentiveness and problem-solving that keeps both the gardener and the garden happy.

Just 10-15 minutes daily in the green embrace can do wonders. Here are the essentials bases you’ll need to cover:

Watering and Irrigation

Every garden needs its lifeline — water. Whether it’s an irrigation system or a handy hose, having easy access to water is crucial.

For smaller gardens, keep a hose and spray nozzle ready, especially during seed germination. Consider setting up drip irrigation or soaker hoses on timers for water conservation and ease.

However, overhead irrigation, like sprinklers, might not be the best idea as they cover a large area promoting weed growth.

Pest Control

Our gardens are bountiful buffets for pests, too! But don’t let that dishearten you — there’s no need to douse your organic paradise in harmful pesticides.

Instead, adopt harmonious strategies for organic pest control:

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Biocontrol is like having your very own army of pest-fighters — natural predators that keep pests in check. Ladybugs, parasitic wasps, spiders — these are all wonderful biocontrol agents that feast on pests and multiply when their prey is abundant.

Think of biocontrol as a cat controlling mice in your yard; it’s about maintaining an ecological balance. The aim isn’t to wipe out all pests (you wouldn’t want your beneficial bugs to starve and leave!); instead, keep them manageable.

Biocontrol can be active, where you buy and release predators like ladybugs to tackle pest infestations, or passive — creating habitats for beneficial insects to thrive and maintain ecological balance.

Learn More: 10 Beneficial Birds You Want in Your Yard

Insect Habitats

Some plants are irresistible to our beneficial bug buddies — ladybugs, spiders, beetles, predatory mites, lacewings, hoverflies, praying mantis, and parasitic wasps.

Plant insect habitats close to your garden beds, interplanting flowering beneficial species at the front of each bed. For instance, scatter white alyssum and calendula around all your plants for added beauty and companion planting benefits. These vibrant blooms also attract local pollinators making them perfect additions to your organic garden.

Learn More: 8 Fall-Blooming Flowers to Plant for Pollinators

Row Covering

One significant step toward organic pest control is using row covers — translucent fabrics that keep bugs off your plants while providing extra warmth to newly planted seedlings or warm-weather crops like melons.

DIY Natural Pest Sprays 

Rather than buying even organic-approved sprays, concoct your own safe, natural remedies from everyday ingredients.

From biodegradable soap mixed with cayenne pepper for mites and thrips to Tomato Leaf Spray and neem oil for aphids — there’s an endless list of DIY tricks for common pests.

Proactive Weed Management 

Weeds can be pesky rivals competing with our plants for space, water, sunlight, and nutrients. The key is prevention — nip them in the bud before they cause big problems!

Disease Prevention

Healthy soil is the powerhouse against diseases. Much like humans, plants, too, need a robust environment to fend off sicknesses efficiently.

Building healthy soil ecosystems using methods like lasagna gardening or compost-heavy techniques can go a long way in ensuring plant health.

End-of-Season Tips

As the growing season draws to a close, it’s time to sit back and savor the fruits of your labor. Your pantry is likely filled with the bountiful gifts of summer — pickled cucumbers, sun-dried tomatoes, frozen pesto, and other delightful mementos of seasonal abundance.

But as you relish these treasures, it’s also time to prepare your garden for its winter slumber.

Clearing Plant Material

Your garden shouldn’t be left untended during winter.

Rather than letting plants wilt and decay all winter, it’s advisable to chop them at the base, leaving the roots intact, and compost the plant material. This practice helps prevent diseases and discourages winter animals from turning your garden into a buffet.

However, some hardy crops like kale, garlic, and cabbage can brave the winter chill for continuous harvests, depending on your climate.

Feeding Your Soil With Compost

Each season’s end or beginning offers a perfect opportunity to nurture your soil by adding a layer of quality compost. Whether you source high-quality compost or create your own, this simple practice replenishes essential nutrients and aids in building soil structure.

Worm compost (vermicast) or professionally composted manure are excellent choices for rejuvenating your garden beds.

Tucking Your Garden in for Winter 

One of the most effective ways of putting your garden “to sleep” at the end of the season is through mulching. Protecting the soil surface with mulch shields it from harsh winter rain or snow.

The best mulch? Fallen maple leaves. They’re not just abundant but also free! Alternatively, unsprayed dried straw, a tarp, or a cover crop like peas and oats can serve as effective mulches.

When spring arrives once more, your well-prepared garden will be ready to burst back into life with renewed vigor and vitality.

Conclusion: The Future is Organic

Organic gardening isn’t just a trend; it’s a way forward — a beacon guiding us toward sustainable living. Whether we aspire to grow bountiful vegetables or simply wish to nurture a small patch of green in our backyard — adopting organic practices is an investment in our health and that of our planet.

And remember: every organic gardener was once a beginner — unsure but hopeful. So, take that first step; let your hands touch the earth, sow those seeds, and breathe in that fresh air. 

Embrace the beautiful journey that is organic gardening because, as Audrey Hepburn once said: “To plant a garden is to believe in tomorrow.”

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